Product & Hazards

Anhydrous AmmoniaEthaneNatural Gas Liquids
n-Butane, Iso-ButaneGasolinePetroleum Ether
Carbon DioxideJet FuelPropane
Crude OilLiquid Petroleum Gas 
Diesel - Heating OilNatural Gas 

 

 Anhydrous Ammonia
Chemical Names:  
 Ammonia, Liquid Ammonia, Nitro-Sil, Spirit of Hartshorn, NH3
Chemical Family:
 Inorganic Nitrogen Compound
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 99+% Ammonia
Extinguishing Media:
 Non-combustible
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 Must wear protective clothing and a positive pressure SCBA. Stop source if possible. If a portable container (such as a cylinder or trailer) can be moved from the fire area without risk to the individual, do so to prevent the pressure relief valve of the trailer from discharging or the cylinder from rupturing. Fight fires using dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Cool fire exposed containers with water spray. Stay upwind when containers are threatened. Use water spray to knock down vapor and dilute.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Not generally a fire hazard. If relief valves are inoperative, heat-exposed storage containers may become explosion hazards. Ammonia contact with chemicals such as mercury, chlorine, iodine, bromine, silver oxide, or hypochlorites can form explosive compounds. Special hazards with chlorine to form chloramine gas, also a primary skin irritant and sensitizer. Combustion may form toxic nitrogen oxides.
Health Hazards:
 Irritant and corrosive to skin, eye, respiratory tract and mucous membranes. May cause severe burns, eye and lung injuries. Skin and respiratory related diseases aggravated by exposure. Not recognized by OSHA as a carcinogen. Not listed in the National Toxicology Program annual report. Not listed as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

 

 N-Butane, ISO-Butane
Chemical Names:  
 n-Butane: Iso-Butane 
 “Normal” Butane
Butyl Hydride
LP Gas
LPG
Liquefied Butane
 2-Methylpropane
Trimethyl Methane
”Iso”
 
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Alkane, Paraffin
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Butane: n-Butane, Iso-Butane, Propane, Butylenes, Pentane and heavier Hydrocarbons Iso-Butane: Iso-Butane, n-Butane, Propane, Butylenes
Extinguishing Media:
 Water spray, dry chemical, CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), halogenated extinguishing agent.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus, shut off source, if possible. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Butanes give off vapors that are heavier than air which can travel considerable distances to a source of ignition and flashback. Extinguishment of fire before source of vapor is shut off can create an explosive mixture in air. Extremely flammable vapor/air mixtures form. May be explosive if allowed to enter into drains or sewers.
Health Hazards:
 Direct eye or skin contact with liquefied gas can result in skin/eye burns (frostbite). Inhalation of butanes at high concentrations (10,000 ppm) may cause drowsiness, anesthesia and mild intoxication. Higher concentration (over 10,000 ppm) may cause loss of consciousness, asphyxiation and death.

 

 Carbon Dioxide
Chemical Names:  
 Carbon Dioxide, Carbonic Anhydride, Carbonic Acid Gas
Chemical Family:
 Gas
Extinguishing Media:
 This material is noncombustible. It can be used as a fire extinguishing agent primarily for its smothering effect.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 Move containers from fire area if without risk, or cool containers with water. Stay away from ends of tanks. An explosion can occur when CO2 contacts mixtures or sodium peroxide with aluminum or magnesium. Reactive metals (such as alkali metals, magnesium, aluminum, titanium or zirconium), their hydrides, and materials like diethyl magnesium, moist cesium oxide, or lithium acetylide can ignite in a CO2 atmosphere. Dry ice can form shock sensitive mixtures with sodium, potassium or sodium-potassium alloy. Carbon dioxide tends to accumulate near the floor of an enclosed space displacing the air upward and creating an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Such enclosures should be checked before entering without an atmosphere-supplying respirator. CO2 gas is odorless and colorless.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Heat of fire can build pressure in cylinder and cause it to rupture. No part of cylinder should be subjected to a temperature higher than 125°F (52°C). Carbon dioxide cylinders are equipped with a pressure relief device. (Exceptions may exist where authorized by DOT.)
Health Hazards:
 No effects to skin and/or eyes anticipated unless CO2 is at low temperatures or in solid form (dry ice) which then may produce freeze burns. Inhalation may produce effects ranging from mild to severe acidosis (1-2% V or 7-10% V CO2 in air respectively). Humans lose consciousness in air containing more than 10% CO2. Immediate asphyxiation results from a concentration of 30% or more CO2 in air.Carbon dioxide is the most powerful cerebral vasodilator known. Inhaling large concentrations causes rapid circulatory insufficiency leading to coma and death. Asphyxiation is likely to occur before the effects of carbon dioxide overexposure. Chronic, harmful effects are not known from repeated inhalation of low concentrations. Low concentrations of carbon dioxide cause increased respiration and headache. Effects of oxygen deficiency resulting from simple asphyxiants may include: rapid breathing, diminished mental alertness, impaired muscular coordination, faulty judgement, depression of all sensations, emotional instability, and fatigue. As asphyxiation progresses, nausea, vomiting, prostration, and loss of consciousness may result, eventually leading to convulsions, coma, and death. Oxygen deficiency during pregnancy has produced developmental abnormalities in humans and experimental animals.

 

 Crude Oil
Chemical Names:  
 Crude Oil - “Sour” (Contains H2S, please see Hydrogen Sulfide fact sheet)
Crude Oil - “Sweet” (No H2S)
Petroleum, Mineral Oil, Rock Oil, Coal Oil, Seneca Oil, Earth Oil
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixture: Chiefly of Paraffins (Alkanes), Cycloparaffins, Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Benzene Hydrocarbons, Inorganic Compounds
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Hydrocarbons (Aromatic & Paraffinic), Benzene, Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitrogen Compounds, Sulfur Compounds, Oxygenated Compounds
Extinguishing Media:
 Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or CO2. Do not use a direct stream of water. Product will float and can be re-ignited on surface of water.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Clear fire area of unprotected personnel. Do not enter confined fire space without full bunker gear (helmet with face shield, bunker coats, gloves and rubber boots), including a positive pressure NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus. Cool fire exposed containers with water.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Containers exposed to intense heat from fires should be cooled with water to prevent vapor pressure buildup/rupture. Sulfur oxides and hydrogen sulfide, both of which are toxic, may be released upon combustion. Product gives off vapors that are heavier than air, which can travel considerable distances to a source of ignition and cause flash fires. Runoff to sewer may cause a fire or explosion hazard.
Health Hazards:
 “SOUR” crude oil contains H2S and poses an extreme hazard. Please see fact sheet on H2S. Crude oil is moderately irritating to the skin and eyes. Natural gas, H2S and other hazardous vapors may evolve and collect in enclosed spaces, resulting in unconsciousness and death. Harmful or fatal if swallowed! Aspiration into the lungs from vomiting can cause chemical pneumonia. Inhalation of other light hydrocarbons may cause pulmonary irritation and result in CNS depression. Benzene is a known carcinogen.

 

 Diesel, Kerosene, Heating, Furnace & Fuel Oil (1,2)
Chemical Names:  
 Diesel Oil 1 & 2, Kerosene 1 & 2, Fuel Oil 1 & 2, Furnace Oil, Heating Oil 1 & 2
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Paraffins (Alkanes), Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Petroleum distillate (Predominately Hydrocarbons ranging from C10 -C16)
Naphthalene
Xylene
Extinguishing Media:
 Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or CO2. Do not use a direct stream of water. Product will float and can be reignited on surface of water.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 HIGHLY COMBUSTIBLE! Do not enter confined fire space without full bunker gear (helmet with face shield, bunker coats, gloves and rubber boots), including a positive pressure NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus. Cool fire exposed containers with water. In the case of large fires, also cool surrounding equipment and structures with water.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 When heated above the flash point, this material will release flammable vapors which if exposed to an ignition source can burn in the open or be explosive in confined spaces. Mists or sprays may be flammable at temperatures below the normal flash point (130° F). Avoid contact with strong acids, alkalies and oxidizers such as liquid chlorine and oxygen.
Health Hazards:
 Liquid is moderately irritating to eyes/skin. Release during high pressure may result in injection of oil into the skin causing local necrosis. Inhalation of vapors or mist may cause mild irritation to the upper respiratory tract. High concentration may result in CNS depression, headache, dizziness and nausea. In extreme cases, unconsciousness and death may occur. Inhalation of high levels of mist may result in chemical pneumonitis. Ingestion of product may result in vomiting; aspiration (breathing) of vomitus into the lung must be avoided as even small quantities may result in aspiration pneumonitis, evidenced by coughing, labored breathing and cyanosis (bluish skin). In severe cases, death may occur.

 

 Ethane
Chemical Names:  
 Ethane, Methylmethane, bimethyl, dimethyl, ethyl hydride, refrigerant gas R170
Chemical Family:
 Alkane
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Methane
Extinguishing Media:
 Carbon dioxide, dry chemical or water spray.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before attempting to extinguish flames. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers and to protect persons attempting to stop the flow of gas. Use flooding quantities of water as fog or spray. Use dry chemical or carbon dioxide to extinguish flames.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Readily forms explosive air-vapor mixtures; may release explosive vapors that travel, be ignited at remote locations, and flash back. Containers may explode in fire. Do not expose to heat, sparks, flame. static. or other sources of ignition. When handling, use non-sparking tool, ground and bond all containers.
Health Hazards:
 Exposure can cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and lightheadedness. Very high levels can cause suffocation from lack of Oxygen. Contact with liquid Ethane can cause frostbite.

 

 Gasoline
Chemical Names:  
 Gasoline, Petrol, Petroleum Naphtha, Light Petroleum Distillate, Benzin
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mix: Paraffins (Alkanes), Olefins (Alkenes), Cycloalkanes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Naphthenes, Alcohols and Ethers
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Alkanes
Cycloalkanes
Alkenes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Xylenes (ortho, meta & para)
Toluene Benzene
 n-Hexane
t-Butyl Methyl Ether
Pseudocumene (1,2,4 - Trimethylbenzene)
Cyclohexane
Ethylbenzene
Naphthalene
*Contains lead
 
Extinguishing Media:
 Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or CO2. Do not use a direct stream of water. Product will float and an be re-ignited on surface of water.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 DANGER! EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Clear fire area of unprotected personnel and isolate. Do not enter confined fire space without full bunker gear including a positive pressure NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus. Cool fire exposed containers with water. Extinguishment of fire before source of vapor is shut off can create an explosive mixture in air.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Vapors may settle in low or confined areas, or travel a long distance to an ignition source and flash back explosively. In emergency situations that require drilling, only trained emergency personnel should drill.
Health Hazards:
 Excessive exposure to vapors may produce headaches, dizziness, nausea, drowsiness, irritation of eyes, nose, throat and CNS depression. Ingestion of product may result in vomiting; aspiration (breathing) of vomitus into the lungs must be avoided as even small amounts can cause chemical pneumonia and/or death. Benzene is a known carcinogen.

 

 Jet Fuel (A, JP, Turbine Fuel)
Chemical Names:  
 Kerosene Mix
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mix: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic HC’s, Naphthenes
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Jet Fuel (A)
Kerosene
Naphthalene
Xylene
Bicyclic & Tricyclic-
Hydrocarbons
 Jet Fuel (JP, Turbine Fuel)
Kerosene
Hydrotreated Naphtha (Heavy)
Naphtha (Light)
Minor Additives
Benzene
Naphthalene
Xylene
Glycol Ethers
 
Extinguishing Media:
 Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or CO2. Do not use a direct stream of water. Product will float and can be re-ignited on surface of water.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 CAUTION - COMBUSTIBLE! Do not enter confined fire space without full bunker gear (helmet with face shield, bunker coats, gloves and rubber boots), including a positive pressure NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus. Cool fire exposed containers with water. In the case of large fires, also cool surrounding equipment and structures with water.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Containers exposed to intense heat from fires should be cooled with water to prevent vapor pressure buildup which could result in container rupture. Container areas exposed to direct flame contact should be cooled with large quantities of water as needed to prevent weakening of container structure. Surfaces that are sufficiently hot may ignite even liquid product in the absence of sparks or flame. Vapors may accumulate and travel to distant ignition sources and flash back explosively. Do not cut, drill, grind, weld or perform similar operations near containers. Burning causes Carbon Monoxide/Dioxide and other harmful products to be formed.
Health Hazards:
 Liquid is moderately irritating to eyes/skin. Inhalation of vapors or mist may cause mild irritation to the upper respiratory tract; high concentrations may result in CNS depression, headache, dizziness and nausea. Inhalation of high levels of mist may result in chemical pneumonitis. Ingestion of product may result in vomiting; aspiration (breathing) of vomitus into the lung must be avoided as even small quantities may result in aspiration pneumonitis, evidenced by coughing, labored breathing and cyanosis (bluish skin). In severe cases, death may occur. Benzene is a known carcinogen.

 

 Liquid Petroleum Gas
Chemical Names:  
 Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LP Gas, LPG, Y-Grade, Demethanized Gasoline, “Raw Feed”, Demethanized “Raw Feed Mix”
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mix: Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, Paraffins (Alkanes), Cycloparaffins, Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Complex combination consisting primarily of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C12
Benzene, Cyclohexane, Xylene, Toluene
Extinguishing Media:
 Dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide (CO2). Stop flow of gas as soon as possible.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus, shut off source, if possible. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Flames impinging on product storage vessels above the liquid level will cause sudden vessel failure in approximately 8 or more minutes, resulting in a BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expansion Violent Explosion), unless surfaces are kept cooled with water. If this cannot be done, evacuate the area. Liquid product will change to vapor rapidly at well below ambient temperatures and readily forms flammable mixtures with air. If exposed to an ignition source, it will burn in the open or be explosive in confined spaces. The vapors are heavier than air and may travel long distances to a point of ignition and then flash explosively back. Vapors will seek low lying areas.
Health Hazards:
 Exposure to vapor may cause irritation to eyes, skin and respiratory system. Exposure to vapors may cause dizziness, disorientation, CNS depression or asphyxiation. Overexposure can cause loss of consciousness or death from asphyxiation or cardiac arrest. Exposure to liquid can cause frostbite and/or chemical burns. Benzene is a known carcinogen.

 

 Natural Gas
Chemical Names:  
 Natural Gas, Methane, Marsh Gas, Well Head Gas, Fuel Gas, Lease Gas, Sour Gas*
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mix: Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (Alkanes), Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Inorganic Compounds
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Methane
Ethane
Propane
Iso-Butane
n-Butane
Pentane
Hexane
 Iso-Hexane
Heptanes
Hydrogen Sulfide* (In “Sour” Gas)
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Benzene
Octanes
 
Extinguishing Media:
 Class B Fire Extinguishing Media such as Halon, CO2 or dry chemical. Fire fighting should be attempted only by those who are adequately trained.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus, shut off source, if possible. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Health Hazards:
 *If H2S is present, an IMMEDIATE, EXTREME health hazard exists, please see Hydrogen Sulfide fact sheet. Natural gas acts as an anesthetic at high concentrations (i.e. enclosed spaces causing displacement of oxygen), producing dizziness, headache, incoordination and narcosis; extremely high concentrations can cause asphyxiation by exclusion of oxygen. Natural Gas may or may not contain Mercaptans to odorize, if it does not, natural gas is odorless, tasteless and colorless. Benzene is a known carcinogen.

 

 Natural Gas Liquids
Chemical Names:  
 Natural Gas Liquids, Natural Gasoline, Casinghead Gasoline, Condensate, Drip Gas, “M” grade
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Paraffins, Cycloparaffins, Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Complex combination consisting primarily of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging from C4 to C12
Benzene, Cyclohexane, Hydrogen Sulfide*
Extinguishing Media:
 Dry chemical, Halon, foam, CO2. Water spray of standard foam. Do not spray direct stream of water; water stream may splash flaming liquid.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus, shut off source, if possible. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Flames impinging on product storage vessels above the liquid level will cause sudden vessel failure in approximately 8 or more minutes, resulting in a BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expansion Violent Explosion), unless surfaces are kept cooled with water. If this cannot be done, evacuate the area. Liquid product will change to vapor rapidly at well below ambient temperatures and readily forms flammable mixtures with air. If exposed to an ignition source, it will burn in the open or be explosive in confined spaces. The vapors are heavier than air and may travel long distances to a point of ignition and then flash explosively back. Vapors will seek low lying areas.
Health Hazards:
 *If H2S is present, an IMMEDIATE, EXTREME health hazard exists, please see Hydrogen Sulfide fact sheet. Eye and skin irritation may result from contact with liquid or vapors. Inhalation may cause burning of the throat, nose and respiratory system, CNS depression (drowsiness, dizziness, coma) or even death, depending on the concentration and duration of exposure. Vapors may also act as a simple asphyxiant (displacement of oxygen). Ingestion can cause chemical pneumonia and pulmonary edema which can be fatal.

 

 Petroleum Ether (NAPHTHA)
Chemical Names:  
 Petroleum Naphtha, Petroleum Spirits, Benzin, Ligroine
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 N - Pentane > 70%
2 - Methylpentane > 1%
3 - Methylpentane > 1%
Cyclopentane > 1%
2,2 - Dimethylbutane > 1%
Extinguishing Media:
 Dry chemical, foam, carbon dioxide (CO2)
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in positive pressure mode. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 Vapors may flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. Closed containers exposed to heat may explode. Contact with strong oxidizers my cause fire. Toxic gases produced are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
Health Hazards:
 Inhalation may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, narcosis, suffocation, lower blood pressure, central nervous system depression and unconsciousness. Liquid may be irritating to skin and eyes. Prolonged exposure may cause dermatitis. Target organ ares eyes, skin, respiratory system and central nervous system.

 

 Propane
Chemical Names:  
 Propane, Propyl Hydride, Dimethylmethane, LP Gas, LPG, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Commercial-Grade Liquefied Propane, “P-Rich Furnace Feed”
Chemical Family:
 Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Paraffin, Alkane
Components - May Contain Variable Amounts Of:
 Propane
Propylene
Butane
Iso-Butane
Ethane
Ethyl Mercaptan
Sulfur
Extinguishing Media:
 Dry chemical, foam, carbon dioxide (CO2), Halogenated extinguishing agent.
Special Firefighting Procedures and Precautions:
 EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! Evacuate area of all unnecessary personnel. Use NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus, shut off source, if possible. Water fog or spray may be used to cool exposed equipment and containers. Allow fire to burn until gas flow is shut off, if possible.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
 This material releases flammable vapors at well below ambient temperature and will readily form flammable mixtures with air. Exposed to an ignition source, it will burn or be explosive in confined spaces. Its vapors are heavier than air and may travel long distances to an ignition source and then flash back explosively. Alkane and chlorine gas mixtures have produced explosions.
Health Hazards:
 Contact with liquefied gas may result in eye and/or skin freeze burns. Inhaling high vapor concentration may produce CNS depression evidenced by giddiness, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, muscular weakness, tremors, drowsiness and nausea; in extreme cases, unconsciousness, asphyxiation and death may occur.

 

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